In a large skillet, melt the butter over medium heat and add the barley, nuts (if using), garlic and onions. Saute the mixture, stirring frequently, until the onions are tender and the barley is golden.
Scrape the mixture into a 3-quart baking dish and stir in the salt, pepper and chicken broth.
Bake uncovered for 60-80 minutes, until the liquid is absorbed and the barley is tender. Garnish with green onions, if desired.